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Hudson Myers
Hudson Myers

Jfk Extension History Essay


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jfk extension history essay



A railroad link to JFK Airport was first recommended in 1968. Various plans surfaced to build a JFK Airport rail connection until the 1990s, though these were not carried out because of a lack of funding. The JFK Express subway service and shuttle buses provided an unpopular transport system to and around JFK. In-depth planning for a dedicated transport system at JFK began in 1990, but was ultimately cut back from a direct rail link to an intra-borough people mover. Construction of the current people-mover system began in 1998. During construction, AirTrain JFK was the subject of several lawsuits, and an operator died during one of the system's test runs. The system opened on December 17, 2003, after many delays. Since then, several improvements have been proposed, including an extension to Manhattan. AirTrain JFK originally had ten stations, but the Terminal 2 stop was closed in 2022.


The fare to enter or exit at Howard Beach and Jamaica was originally $5,[78] though preliminary plans included a discounted fare of $2 for airport and airline employees.[105] The original proposal also called for fare-free travel between airport terminals,[105] a recommendation that was ultimately implemented.[117] In June 2019, the Port Authority proposed raising AirTrain JFK's fare to $7.75,[122][123] and the fare increase was approved that September.[124] The new fares took effect on November 1, 2019,[125][126] representing the first fare raise in the system's history.[124] In November 2021, the Port Authority discussed plans to raise the fare again to $8;[127][128] the second fare increase took effect on March 1, 2022.[129]


Almost 40 years later, in 1904, European creditors of a number of Latin American countries threatened armed intervention to collect debts. President Theodore Roosevelt promptly proclaimed the right of the United States to exercise an "international police power" to curb such "chronic wrongdoing," in his so-called Roosevelt Corollary (or extension) to the Monroe Doctrine.


Jack, meanwhile, began work on a second book, a series of essays about United States Senators who had risked their political careers bucking convention and party for a greater purpose. With the help of Library of Congress research files, Kennedy, his speechwriter Ted Sorensen, and a handful of Senate staffers produced Profiles in Courage.


Timothy Naftali, Historian: What Kennedy was saying was: We know that French imperialism is going to die out. The question is: Are we going to be on the right side or the wrong side of history? If we make a choice now, we can help shape the outcome. If we align ourselves with Paris until the bitter end, the new generation of leaders in Algeria will remember that and won't talk to us.


David Brinkley, NBC News (archival): We're trying to settle here, so far without any success, or without enough success, the closest -- one of the closest elections in the history of the United States.


His stubborn insistence on being the kind of leader he'd vowed to be would make his presidency among the most energetic, the most far-reaching, the most perilous, and the most tragic in American history.


Robert Dallek, Historian: When Eisenhower left, at that juncture he was the oldest man in the country's history to have served in the White House. Kennedy coming in was the youngest man to ever have been elected. And so Kennedy wants to underscore that. He wants to emphasize the new, the innovative.


Thomas Hughes:Assistant Secretary of State: Khrushchev, as a kind of inauguration present for Kennedy, had given his big speech about national wars of liberation being the future extension of Communist influence. Kennedy made everybody read this. It was required reading in the first weeks of the Administration.


John F. Kennedy (archival): The great battleground for the defense and expansion of freedom today is the whole southern half of the globe: Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East, the lands of the rising people. Their revolution is the greatest in human history...


These learning resources have been curated to help students who are studying senior history (Year 11 and 12) in New South Wales. Many resources are free but others link to books available for purchase from our store. Thank you for visiting our website and we wish you all the best in your studies.


This episode explores the history and historiography of witch trials and witch hunts. Our guest is Michael Street, history teacher and recipient of a 2019 Premier's Teacher Scholarship sponsored by HTANSW. Michael used his scholarship to travel to the United States and England to study the history of witch hunts and has written a chapter on this topic for the second edition of the History Extension Resource Book (HTANSW, 2020).


In this episode, we discuss the history, memory and historiography of the 35th President of the United States: John F. Kennedy. The episode is not an interview, but a discussion of different perspectives and interpretations of JFK aimed at those studying the NSW History Extension course and completing the JFK Case Study. This episode has a companion article published in the March 2019 edition of HTA NSW's quarterly journal, Teaching History.


In the context of the Cold War, Kennedy wisely used sea power to meet global crises during the ideological struggle with the Soviet Union, including a "quarantine" of Cuba in the autumn of 1962 that choked off the flow of military supplies to that island and persuaded the Soviet Union to remove its offensive missiles. Speaking from the flight deck of the attack carrier Kitty Hawk (CVA-63) on 6 June 1963, he recalled the role of American sea power during that confrontation: "Events of October 1962 indicated, as they had all through history, that control of the sea means security. Control of the seas can mean peace. The United States must control the seas if it is to protect your security and those countries which stretch thousands of miles away that look to you on this ship and the sister ships of the United States Navy."


At the conclusion of the exercise, the ship anchored at Malaga on 29 January 1987 for a four-day port visit, scheduled to be her last before turnover in Rota. Growing unrest in the Middle East, however, shortened liberty, as the carrier received an indefinite extension with orders to commence a high-speed transit to the eastern Med where John F. Kennedy would join Nimitz off the coast of Lebanon.


A gas streetlamp flickers on the sidewalk outside of John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site. One can imagine Beals Street a century ago, when gas lights lined the streets, the road was unpaved, the London plane trees were young, and the houses were new. Beals Street remains residential, like when the Kennedys lived on the street. The history of the house at 83 Beals Street tells a history of suburban growth and family life, made all the more significant by the family who lived there. Today, the house has taken on a new life as a national historic site.


Ida Dox was intimately involved the skull reconstruction project. Her odd reaction to my questions concerning that subject during our second and final telephone conversation is discussed in the epilogue that closes this essay.


After this essay had been substantially revised and peer-reviewed, I decided to place a second, follow-up call to Ida Dox.[78] I knew far more about the FPP shenanigans than at the time of our first encounter and was anxious to see how Dox would respond. On February 13, 2003, the following exchange took place (bold emphasis added):


These Cold War essay questions have been written by Alpha History authors, for use by teachers and students. They can also be used for short-answer questions, homework activities and other research or revision tasks. Use our website and other sources to help you complete these questions. If you would like to suggest a question for this page, please contact Alpha History:


To enable such extensions, organizations will benefit from instilling an agile culture and working model that help Mobilize innovation. Speed is an important driver of innovation success, as is the ability to persist despite the hardships that a crisis imposes.


Since its inception in 1924, the U.S. Border Patrol has had a proud history of service to our nation. Although enormous changes have affected nearly every aspect of its operations from its earliest days, the basic values that helped shape the Patrol in the early years; professionalism, honor, integrity, respect for human life, and a shared effort, have remained.


"A Great Society" for the American people and their fellow men elsewhere was the vision of Lyndon B. Johnson. In his first years of office he obtained passage of one of the most extensive legislative programs in the Nation's history. Maintaining collective security, he carried on the rapidly growing struggle to restrain Communist encroachment in Viet Nam.


During World War II he served briefly in the Navy as a lieutenant commander, winning a Silver Star in the South Pacific. After six terms in the House, Johnson was elected to the Senate in 1948. In 1953, he became the youngest Minority Leader in Senate history, and the following year, when the Democrats won control, Majority Leader. With rare skill he obtained passage of a number of key Eisenhower measures.


First he obtained enactment of the measures President Kennedy had been urging at the time of his death--a new civil rights bill and a tax cut. Next he urged the Nation "to build a great society, a place where the meaning of man's life matches the marvels of man's labor." In 1964, Johnson won the Presidency with 61 percent of the vote and had the widest popular margin in American history--more than 15,000,000 votes.


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